this is such an important thread and thank you for raising the topic. Culturally, linguistically and spiritually relevant services and supports have often being developed by ethnic communities themselves as an adhoc response to needs of their population groups. Indeed, it is difficult to find professionals who are bilingual and bicultural and have a culturally inclusive practice. Things are definitely changing and this is a good thing and having forums like this one to be able to express various specific needs pertinent to culturally and linguistically diverse groups is an important step towards improvement. Fortunately, our government recognizes through the Aged Care Act 1997 that culturally and linguistically diverse people are one of the ‘special needs’ group and as such efforts are continually made to improve the sector as large groups of certain ethnic minorities age disproportionately to the general population due to the fact that thousands upon thousands migrated at the same time and are of the same or similar age, thus aging rapidly and many reverting back to their mother tongue (natural part of aging) and seek assistance and support in their own language by someone who is of the same cultural and religious background. Having said that of course we also need to acknowledge that no two people are the same. To be of the same cultural, linguistic and religious background may be beneficial, however, it doesn’t automatically guarantee complete understanding and uniformity in beliefs, views, ideas etc. Person-Centre care is what’s needed and a wholistic approach when delivering services, ie. taking into consideration the universal needs (how’s this person like ALL others), the cultural needs (how is this person like SOME others in a group context), and finally, the individual needs (how’s this person like NO other). As it comes down to self-identification, putting these three basic together - Universal, Cultural, Individual - and approaching the service provision from that perspective may give a more wholistic view of the needs of that person and thus assist in the provision of sensitive and relevant services. There are millions living in the same country and sharing the same ethnicity and religion but that doesn’t mean they all automatically understand each other and they are appropriate help just on that basis. That’s how I’m approaching it when I seek services and supports for myself. What’s your ideas?