Thank you for your post and what a great question- I haven't heard of anything like this before. The only thing it makes me think of is the subjects that you've done and how you went in fulfilling that criteria. Usually this info comes at the very beginning of the subject and you can get an idea that way of your progressing. Is this the sort of thing you might be after?
The person that comes to mind in these questions is actually the lecturer for that subject; since they are the course expert. I'm not sure if this is an option for you.
I'm so sorry that the other people in your life aren't supportive or taking you seriously (especially the psychologist - literally their role to do so!!).
I'm not sure if it's going to be helpful to add- but I had gaps in my study as well due to health issues. For me I tried to tackle each subject one by one, so that if there were bits I couldn't wrap my head around - I could then dedicate time to understanding that, and then working to the next bit. It felt less overwhelming for me because it's really 'right here right now' where as otherwise if there was a big long list of things I didn't know, I would have been too daunted to even try and start again.
I hope that you can find something that helps.